Welcome to this website and Tree Breeding Tools!


This web-site is a service to make programs, lectures and other tools available to the World. Most "tools" are related to Forest Tree Improvement, and in particular the use of quantitative genetic theory for tactic and strategic decisions. I or collaborators have made most of the available programs, files, pictures, etc., but material from other sources exist. It is my hope that this service will contribute to improved forest tree improvers with better scientific advisers. This hopefully will result in better forest tree improvement for better forests, which will contribute to solve problems on the way against a better future World! However, it did not function as well as I hoped. IT changes, interactions get outdated, and now the web has changed to a new environment. Thus several of the programs do not work. But the EXCEL sheets mainly works and it has become easier to load sheets with macros if warnings are ignored or this web is identified as a safe site.


When you click at a link, which will leads to a file, it usually downloads it does not open directly. 

Browser and computer peculiarities

Much of what occurs on your screen is related to the browser, and thus not controlled by me. Warnings or direct refusals may occur against loading files from a non trusted source. Advertisement rubbish may bloom. How the texts appear on screen may be up to your computer settings. Often the fonts and background colours are default. Non-Latin characters (e.g. the Swedish letters and many symbols) may either vanish or appear odd. Features like the equation editor may not work leaving unfilled boxes. The screen size, screen setting and magnification are factors, which matters for how your view appears. Old technologies used fewer pixels in the screen . Features available to me, may not be installed at other computers. Maybe it helps to run the program from the web site, but this is not always possible.  It may be more or less easy to load files depending on your browser or your local IT-managers. The files themselves may not be interpretable as intended in your environment with its current settings. It is quite likely the programs themselves works fine, but some of the "pedagogical" output does not work, which may cause confusion.


I allow the user of this site copying, using, developing, changing or extracting from the files and programs, which are made by me and placed on this directory.


I often make mistakes, thus some formulas or interpretations may be erroneous. Please focus my attention on it if you suspect this may be the case! Some mistakes I detect myself.


I do not accept any formal or legal responsibility for anything, which may happen if you use or import files or programs found on this web-site or let the suggested values or information lead your decisions. My sincere guess is, however, that such use will not cause the end of your world.

Genetic particulars

In the genetic programs usually only a single character on a single site is considered. This "character" can, however, be an index considering several characters, sites and tests, so this is not as severe constraint, as it may appear at first sight.


The programs and other files are systemised on a number of directories. This structure may change over time.

You can find many of the files I offer by searching in the directories. Then you may also see some files that are not meant for distribution for different reasons. Sometimes, but not always I may have made efforts to make such directories and files invisible (keywords may also be needed for access). The content on levels closer to the root than /DAGL ought to be invisible to you if you are not a local user.

 The address to "Tree Breeding Tools" ("TBT") is


Servers may have peculiarities and these may change over time. E.g. file names may not be accepted or characters may be filtered away so file names become unrecognisable.

How "popular" is this site?

My website seems to get around 1/4 of the total number of visits to the departmental web structures and around half of visits to the pages allocated to individuals at the department (75 persons).

Website history

At 1997 files and directories connected to these activities were at the servers Mendel and Linne. In the end of 1999 they were moved to Picea. Mendel and LinnĂ© were closed down spring 2001, and do not exist any more. At October this web was moved to UPSC server "zeke".

1998-2000 my WebPages were a combination of word-htm and FrontPage side by side. Since spring 2001 I use FrontPage 2000 for both the sheets and the directory and linkage structure and when I re-edit I usually use FrontPage 2003, but sometimes recent Word.

I retired 2009, but intend to still maintain this site at least as long as I am allowed to use a University browser.

Tools used

I use MS Windows, I have an installation Windows 2010 and use FrontPage 2003 and now my recent programs but where are files of different age on the web.

Customer contact and feed-back

If you find it difficult and time-consuming to use the programmes, that certainly is a feeling you share with many others. I appreciate feed back, preferable by E-mail. I may even try to help you to apply the tools offered. If there is something particular you do not understand, I will probably remain unaware of the difficulty or mistake if not told. It is much too easy to be misleading or to make mistakes! To improve transparency, user contacts are extremely valuable. It would be nice to know to what extent people outside my known collaborators found this a valuable service. I get little feed back (unless when I have specifically asked for it), which makes me a bit disappointed.

About EXCEL files

First a word about macros (see more below). Most of the EXCEL sheets will not work if the macros do not work. When loading the programs the macros may become disabled, when you may see the message NAME? on places where macros (e.g. functions) should work. You can disable macros when loading from the net or by setting a high security. That prevents the proper function of the EXCEL sheets offered. See below on security. 

EXCEL files are often used on this site. EXCEL is available on many computers all over the world and most forest tree breeders and forest geneticists have access to it, so I guessed the best way to create generally available tools was to use EXCEL. EXCEL can now host lots of explanation close to the actual operations. The sheets can be used as formula collections. The sheets can be further developed by the user. Unfortunately there are disadvantages with EXCEL also, mainly different kinds of incompatibility problems and safety devices.

A useful tool in the EXCEL sheets is "Solver", but solver will not work unless the files are downloaded, and solver is properly installed.

Your machine may not be compatible with the modern EXCEL versions or does not work with my files for some other reason. Do not give up understanding too soon! Did you read all explaining text? Maybe you are in the wrong sheet in the workbook? Clicking at the bottom menu changes sheets! Or you may not have looked at the right place of the sheet; you may be able to see only a part of the sheet, in particular if you have a small screen or a high magnification setting (you can change the magnification, try to look at the sheet in a sufficiently small scale to see all of it). You may miss something important, if you do not search over the whole sheet. One useful question when you get a result, which does not appeal to you, is if you have addressed the right question. A common mistake in Science is to get the right answer on the wrong question. There may be more information elsewhere, so try some trial and error before quitting!

Information, which is meant to be input from the user, appears in red fonts, but output, which should not be changed by the user, appears in blue font. Changing cells meant for output harms the function of the workbook. Usually nothing prevents you from inserting "impossible" entries. A common reason for odd; not interpretable; or absence; of results is that an unreasonable value has been entered. You can insert big values or get output with many digits, that often results in confusing symbols on the screen in spite of that everything actually works. A remedy may be to widen the columns where the problem appears. Language settings may cause problems; e.g. EXCEL in Swedish setting is too dumb to recognise decimal points (program developers often do not comprehend all type of problems met by different flavours of aliens vs.. non-Americans).

The EXCEL (.XLS) files were developed as workbooks for Windows. The sheets often also contains insertions, e.g. from MS Word or MS Equation, these are not essential for the function, but may be relevant for the understanding. These MS Equation editor may not be installed into your computer, and when this may appear just as empty boxes to you. A Mac may add to these transcription problems (I use MS). Old versions are sometimes kept on the site for some time to give access to net users who do not have the latest equipment.

EXCEL has come in new versions 2007 and 2010 and that causes considerable problems, especially in manipulating the files.

I guess the files can be helpful, if you adapt them to own problems, even in the case you can not use the worksheets as they are organised. If you understand how the worksheets work, you may extend or fine-tune them to your own problem; they may serve as useful templates for further development. They are also intended to serve a pedagogical purpose; they offer a way to understand concepts I feel important. They may even serve as collections of relevant formulas.

Viruses and bugs

There is a risk viruses; bugs; worms; Trojan horses or other creeps will spread via a site for file and program distribution. If someone tries to download or execute or open macros from this site, probably the browser will issue a warning to do that involving a site, which is not trusted. If macros are disabled it is very unlikely the programs will work!!!  This web site is on the web-server managed by SLU and is claimed by the IT-responsible here to be frequently screened for viruses with latest search programs. Should anyone find indications of infection on a file on this site, please, yell an alarm to me!! Such an alarm have never been received. 

Settings on your computer may make it impossible to get files from a web-site which is not "trusted", and this site is probably not trusted unless you tell your computer that it is. 

You can inform your computer's web-browser that the this site is "trusted". With Windows 2000 this can be done as follows:

Choose "Control Panel"
Choose "Internet Options" 
Choose "Security"
Choose "Trusted Sites"
Press "Sites"
Check that the box "Require server verification..." is not marked
Write  "http://daglindgren.upsc.se"
Press "OK" twice

The procedure is described in a page

I retired autumn 2009.

Dag Lindgren

This page was last edited 13-10-21 by Dag Lindgren.