Forest Genetic trial 625 Vännfors with ”Dag Lindgren” Lecture Hall
In Swedish The linked documents are often in Swedish or in Swenglish.
This is an introduction with some links
The trial is situated 35 km from Umeå, north of Vännfors. Follow E12 west from Umeå. Immediately before the bridge over Vindelälven take road towards Vindeln. Park at the sign east of the road where Tavelsjöleden crosses the road. The trial is visible from where and there is a sign. Where are two demonstration trials, called basic course (grundkurs) and advanced course (påbyggnadskurs). The species is pine (Pinus sylvestris), the only pine native to Sweden. A major species in Sweden and in particular in the north. In the middle of the advanced course where are benches and place for signs, a good place for a forest genetic presentation or discussion in the field. The trials are fenced (moose make much harm to young pines here). The land host is “Holmen”, one of the big companies managing forest in northern Sweden. The trial was planted in the spring 2001.
There is a path through the trial and on its sides where are plots planted with 10*10 pines from different seed sources. There are posted signs in front of each lot identifying its origin. There are seeds collected in stands, which were used on a site like this before seed orchard seeds become dominant originating north of the trial from Skellefteå älv river valley (lat. 65° N) and Överkalix (lat. 66° 10’ N) The seed orchard lots are 10 Östteg (65° N) och 401 Hortlax (66° N). The plustrees used as parents originate from lat. 65-67°N. The demonstration trial is situated a latitude 64 and altitude 130 m (lower than the average forest land in northern Sweden).
When the trial was established material from latitude 65 would have been used and latitude 66 would be considered slightly overhardy. More southern origins may appear a little more advantageous here than they would be in the forest, as it has become warmer since the transfer recommendations used when this trial was established, and the survival is better in these experimental conditions than in a real forest. More northern materials survive better but grow slower, and the advantage of better survival is not apparent in the trial. But the comparison of “genetically improved” seeds and stand collections should still be fair. There is a considerable variation within plots, selecting parents has no large influence of the variation among trees.
Vännfors is situated near Umeå, which is a major center for education, research and administration related to forestry-. It is easy to find and to navigate within the trial. It is well described on the place, no written guide is needed. A good visiting place for forestry groups or individual visitors.
News from Vännfors (e. g, photos)
The results from the trial are in good agreement with estimations of breeders and forest geneticists. The early seed orchard offer a gain of magnitude 10% and the late seed orchards 20% (more if there is no pollen contamination and no contribution from volunteers).
The stand seeds from Skellefteå älvdal are slightly southtransferred but Överkalix is a larger southward transfer. At southtransfer the survival on harsh sites will increase but the growth be reduced. Material from seed orchard Östteg was considered suitable for Vännfors, while Hortlax was to northern. Vid en jämförelse förväntas träd från fröplantagerna växa 10 % bättre än beståndsmaterialet med likvärdigt ursprung. Huvuddelen av föräldraträden som ingår i korsningarna har visat bra resultat i fälttester och är utvalda till nästa generations förädling. Det finns även korsningar mellan föräldrar som har sämre resultat än genomsnittet. De kommer inte att användas vidare i förädlingsarbetet. För alla sorter finns en stor genetisk variation men det är inte bara generna som styr trädens tillväxt. De påverkas också av de lokala förutsättningarna i skogen. Frost, tillgång till näring, vatten och solljus samt konkurrens från andra träd är några exempel. Faktum är att det bara är 10-30 procent av skillnaderna mellan de enskilda träden som beror på generna. Resten beror på den omgivande miljön. Detta förklarar stora delar av den synbara variationen mellan träden inom en parcell.
Below is a map of the demonstration trial.
materials were measured by Elfving October 2014, values given are for trees
with largest diam.
* Plot 1, northern stand seeds, which could have been chosen at the site 1970, 5.9 m
* Plot 11, a cross among two good plus trees, which may represent the most modern seed orchards, 8.1 m.
This clearly demonstrates the huge potential of new seed orchards to improve the forest! Within ten years most new forest established will reach that improvement level and seed production from such seed orchard is already significant and raising fast.
Objective figures on likely improvement, its progress and its causes are important. There are two lots in the trial, which are intended to help with that. Plot 14 and Plot 12 are crosses between “random” trees (comparison trees) from the same stands as plus trees were selected. Crosses are reproducible and the material give a baseline for breeding. Seed orchard seeds are superior not only because of plus tree selection but there are two other reasons contribution to gain. We say that first batch seed orchards add 10% to production. But we think only 6% depend on plus tree selection.
Last edit 170820