Seed orchard literature

If you know or has written relevant recent seed orchard literature you do not find here, please send Dag Lindgren a message and get it posted here!

Some historic seed orchard publications

Last IUFRO meeting where a working party on seed orchards was involved: 1986; Weir B and  (editors) 1986. Conference Proceedings: A joint meeting of IUFRO WP on Breeding Theory, Progeny Testing and Seed Orchards. Virginia, October 13-17. 1986.Williamsburg 1986. That proceedings contain 17 papers with reference to seed orchards, the proceedings from the conference 2007 contain 35 papers. Thus probably the meeting 2007 is the one in the history, which has attracted most attention focusing on seed orchard research.

Last Nordic meeting on seed orchards: 1991 Lindgren D (editor) 1991. Pollen Contamination in Seed Orchards. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Nordic Group for Tree Breeding 1991. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology. Report 10, 120pp.

There was a symposium about mass-propagation technology for fast growing tree species at Bordeaux 1992, which could been said to deal with seed orchard problems almost as much as the current conference considering it was longer, but because of the constraint fast-growing species it was still not that relevant for seed orchards in general.

Last book on seed orchards in English 2000: Mohan Varghese, A. Nicodemus, B. Nagarajan, K.R.S, Siddappa, S.S. R. Bennet and K. Subramanian 2000 Seedling seed orchards.

Second last book on seed orchards 2006:  HIGA, Antonio Rioyei; SILVA, Luciana Duque (org). Pomar de Sementes de Espécies Florestais Nativas (Seed Orchard of Brazilian Native Forest Trees Species). In Portuguese. Curitiba, FUPEF DO PARANÁ. 2006. 264P.

Last book on seed orchards 2007: Almqvist, C. 2007. Fröplantager – anläggning och skötsel [Seed orchardsestablishment and management]. SkogForsk, Handledning, 99 pp. (In Swedish).

Some conferences have dealt rather much with seed orchard problems without putting them in focus like
Biology and control of reproductive processes in forest trees, IUFRO symposium section IUFRO S2.01-05 22-26 August 1993, University of Victoria, BC, Canada

Some volumes with focus on seed and reproduction

Forest Ecology and Management,  Vol. 19 Nos. 1-4 June 1987. Special Issue:  Flowering and Seed-Bearing in Forest Seed Orchards.
Proceedings of the International Symposium on Flowering and Seed-Bearing in forest Seed Orchards, under auspices of the International Union of Forest Research Organisations (IUFRO) Section S2.01.00 Physiology, and Working Party S2.01.05 Reproductive Processes. Held at the Institute of Dendrology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kórnik, Poland, 2 - 7 September, 1985. Guest Editor: Wladyslaw Chalupka.

Proceedings - Conifer Tree Seed in the Inland Mountain West Symposium. Missoula, Montana, August 5-6, 1985. Compiler: Raymond C. Shearer. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, UT 84401, General Technical Report INT-203, April 1986.

Tree Physiology, Vol. 15, No 7/8, July/August 1995. Biology and Control of Reproductive Processes in Forest Trees.
A collection of peer reviewed papers from among those presented at a symposium sponsored by the International Union of Forest Research Organizations and hosted by the British Columbia Ministry of Forests and the University of Victoria at the University of Victoria, August 22-26, 1993. Editors: J.E. Webber, J.N. Owens, M.U. Stoehr.

Old books
Faulkner Roy, 1975.
Seed orchards. Forestry Commission bulletin 54, 149 p

Pollination biology is relevant to seed orchards
Claire G Williams has issued a new book May 2009. Conifer Reproductive Biology

Williams G 2008 Aerobiology of Pinus taeda pollen clouds Can. J. For. Res. 38: 2177–2188

Some decades ago seed orchards were more "popular" here is a book from FAO 1993


Recent literature (2006 and later)

Some recent literature which have come to our (my) knowledge besides what is referred to at other places of this page, contributions to the Umeå 2007 proceedings are omitted.

Listed -2012

Seed orchard conference 2007 proceedings 

Finnvid Prescher thesis .

Tomas Funda thesis

Listed according to author 2006-2012, mostly not proceedings or reports

Chaix, G., Vigneron, P., Razafimaharo, V., and Hamon, S. 2007. Are phenological observations sufficient to estimate the quality of seed crops from a Eucalyptus grandis open-pollinated seed orchard? Consequences for seed collections. New Forests 33(1): 41-52.

Dutkuner, I., Bilir, N., Ulusan, M.D., 2008. Influence of growth on reproductive traits and its effect on fertility and gene diversity in a clonal seed orchard of Scots pine. J. of Environmental Biology, 29:349-352

Chen, C.C., Liewlaksaneeyanawin, C., Funda, T., Kenawy, A.M.A., Newton, C.H., and El-Kassaby, Y.A. 2009. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci in western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.). Molecular Ecology Resources 9(3): 843-845. Hallingbäck H. R., Jansson G., Hannrup B. 2008 Genetic parameters for grain angle in 28-year-old Norway spruce progeny trials and their parent seed orchard. Ann. For. Sci. 65: 301-308

El-Kassaby, Y.A., Cappa, E.P., Liewlaksaneeyanawin, C., Klápště, J., and Lstibůrek, M. 2011. Breeding without breeding: Is a complete pedigree necessary for efficient breeding? In PLoS ONE. p. e25737.

El-Kassaby, Y.A., Stoehr, M.U., Reid, D., Walsh, C.G., and Lee, T.E. 2007. Clonal-row versus random seed orchard designs: interior spruce mating system evaluation. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37(3): 690-696.

"A novel approach for the operational production of hybrid larch seeds under northern climatic conditions" by Fabienne Colas, Martin Perron, Denise Tousignant, Carol Parent, Monique Pelletier and Patrick Lemay  JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2008, VOL. 84, No. 1 — THE FORESTRY CHRONICLE 95


Funda, T., Chen, C.C., Liewlaksaneeyanawin, C., Kenawy, A.M.A., and El-Kassaby, Y.A. 2008. Pedigree and mating system analyses in a western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) experimental population. Annals of Forest Science 65(7).

Funda, T., Liewlaksaneeyanawin, C., Fundova, I., Lai, B., Walsh, C., Van Niejenhuis, A., Cook, C., Graham, H., Woods, J., and El-Kassaby, Y. 2011. Congruence between parental reproductive investment and success determined by DNA-based pedigree reconstruction in conifer seed orchards. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 41(2): 380-389.

Funda, T., Liewlaksaneeyanawin, C., Fundova, I., Na Takuathung, C., and El-Kassaby, Y.A. Partial vs. full pedigree reconstruction in a lodgepole pine experimental population.

Funda, T., Lstibůrek, M., Lachout, P., Klápště, J., and El-Kassaby, Y. 2009. Optimization of combined genetic gain and diversity for collection and deployment of seed orchard crops. Tree Genetics & Genomes 5(4): 583-593.


Kang, K.S., Chun, B.W., Han, S.U., Kim, C.S. and Choi W.Y. 2007. Genetic gain and diversity under different selection methods in a breeding seed orchard of Quercus serrata. Silvae Genet. 56(6): 277-281.

Kang, K.S. and Mullin T.J. 2007. Clonal fertility variation and its effect on gene diversity of seeds in a clonal seed orchard of Chamaecyparis obtusa in Korea. Silvae Genet. 56(3-4): 134-137.

Kaya, N., Isik, K., and Adams, W.T. 2006. Mating system and pollen contamination in a Pinus brutia seed orchard. New Forests 31(3): 409-416.

Lstibůrek, M., and El-Kassaby, Y.A. 2010. Minimum-inbreeding seed orchard design. Forest Science 56(6): 603-608

Mariette, S., Balsemin, E., Stoeckel, S., Tavaud, M., Le Bouler, H., Santi, F., and Verger, M. 2007. Parental participation in progeny and effective population sizes in experimental seed orchards of wild cherry Prunus avium L. (Batsch). Annals of Forest Science 64(5): 533-539.

Perez, A.M.M., White, T.L., Huber, D.A., and Martin, T.A. 2007. Graft survival and promotion of female and male strobili by topgrafting in a third-cycle slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii) breeding program. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37(7): 1244-1252.

Pulkkinen, Pertti, Varis, Saila, Pakkanen, Anne, Koivuranta, Leena, Vakkari, Pekka and Parantainen, Annika(2009)  Southern pollen sired more seeds than northern pollen in southern seed orchards established with northern clones of Pinus sylvestris',Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research,24:1,8 — 14 To link to this Article: DOI: 10.1080/02827580802592467

Stoehr, M., Mehl, H., Nicholson, G., Pieper, G., and Newton, C. 2006. Evaluating supplemental mass pollination efficacy in a lodgepole pine orchard in British Columbia using chloroplast DNA markers. New Forests 31(1): 83-90.

Michael Stoehr & Alvin Yanchuk & Chang-Yi Xie & Leopoldo Sanchez Gain and diversity in advanced generation coastal Douglas-fir selections for seed production populations Tree Genetics & Genomes (2008) 4:193–200

Ulusan, M.D., Bilir, N., 2008. Effective Number of Clones in Seed Orchards of Cedrus libani A. Rich. Pakistan Journal of Biological Scienece (in press).


Elliott L. 2006. Availability of Resistant Port-Orford-Cedar Seed.


Seed orchard connected literature by Dag Lindgren and collaborators since 2006

Papers where Dag Lindgren is a co-author are listed here and not in the list above, the titles occurs by year (easiest they to list it), includes proceedings etc.

Bilir N, Prescher F, Ayan S and Lindgren D 2006. Growth characters and number of strobili in clonal seed orchards of Pinus sylvestris. Euphytica 152:293-301.

Lindgren D. 2006. Forest Seed orchards and gene diversity.  Nordic GENEresources. Nordic Council of Ministers  5: 18-19.

Lindgren D. 2006. Färre kloner i framtida fröplantager. PlantAktuellt 2006 (4) sid 8.

Prescher F, Lindgren D and El-Kassaby Y 2006. "Is linear deployment of clones optimal under different clonal outcrossing contributions in seed orchards?" Tree Genetics and Genomes 2:25-29.

Varghese M, Nicodemus A, Nagarajan B & Lindgren D. 2006. Impact of fertility variation on gene diversity and drift in two clonal seed orchards of teak (Tectona grandis Linn f). New Forests 31: 497-512

Varghese M, Lindgren D & Ravi N 2006.  Linear thinning in a clonal test of Eucalyptus camaldulensis for conversion to a clonal seed orchard. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 18(2): 102-108.

Varghese M, Lindgren D & Kamalakannan R 2006. Gene diversity consideration while creating south Indian forests. Poster presented at workshop on “Policies in Tropical Rural Development – Swedish contributions, influences and research needs” at Umeå 061120-21

Bilir N, Kang KS & Lindgren D 2007. Fertility variation and gene diversity in a clonal seed orchard of Pinus sylvestris In Proceedings of the IUFRO Division 2 Joint Conference: Low Input Breeding and Conservation of Forest Genetic Resources: Antalya, Turkey, 9-13 October 2006. Edited by Fikret Isik. p 21-27

El-Kassaby YA, Prescher F & Lindgren D 2007. Advanced generation seed orchards’ turnover as affected by breeding advance, time to sexual maturity, and costs, with special reference to Pinus sylvestris in Sweden.  Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 22:88-98.

Kamalakannan R, Varghese M, Bilir N & Lindgren D 2007. Conversion of a Progeny Trial of Eucalyptus tereticornis to a Seedling Seed Orchard Considering Gain and Fertility. In Proceedings of the IUFRO Division 2 Joint Conference: Low Input Breeding and Conservation of Forest Genetic Resources: Antalya, Turkey, 9-13 October 2006. Edited by Fikret Isik. p 93-99.

Kamalakannan R, Varghese M & Lindgren D 2007. Fertility variation and its implications on relatedness in seed crops in seedling seed orchards of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. tereticornis.  Silvae Genetica: 56:253-259.

Lindgren, D & Wei RP 2007. Low-input tree breeding strategies. In Proceedings of the IUFRO Division 2 Joint Conference: Low Input Breeding and Conservation of Forest Genetic Resources: Antalya, Turkey, 9-13 October 2006. Edited by Fikret Isik. p 124-138.

Lindgren D, Tellalov Y & Prescher F 2007. Seed set for Scots pine grafts is difficult to predict In Proceedings of the IUFRO Division 2 Joint Conference: Low Input Breeding and Conservation of Forest Genetic Resources: Antalya, Turkey, 9-13 October 2006. Edited by Fikret Isik. p 139-141.

Prescher F, Lindgren D, Almqvist C, Kroon J, Lestander TA & Mullin TJ 2007.  Female fertility variation in mature Pinus sylvestris clonal seed orchards. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 22:280-289.

Varghese M, Kamalakannan R, Lindgren, D and Harwood CE 2007.  Gene diversity and genetic gain in seedling seed orchards of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. tereticornis. In proceedings Durban 2007

Bilir N, Prescher F, Lindgren D & Kroon J 2008.Variation in cone and seed characters in clonal seed orchards of Pinus sylvestris .  New Forests 36:187-199

Danusevicius D & Lindgren D 2008 "Strategies for optimal deployment of related clones into seed orchards" Silvae Genetica 57:119-127

Fries A, Lindgren D & Andersson B 2008. The Swedish Scots Pine Seed Orchard Västerhus. In Lindgren D (editor) Proceedings of a Seed Orchard Conference, Umeå, Sweden, 26-28 September 2007. p 70-77.

Lindgren D (editor) Proceedings of a Seed Orchard Conference, Umeå, Sweden, 26-28 September 2007. ISBN:978-91-85911-28-8. 256 pages.

Lindgren D & Danusevičius D 2008 Deployment of clones to seed orchards when candidates are related  In Lindgren D (editor) Proceedings of a Seed Orchard Conference, Umeå, Sweden, 26-28 September 2007: 135-141.

Lindgren D, Karlsson B, Andersson B & Prescher F, 2008. The Swedish seed orchard program for Scots pine and Norway spruce. In Lindgren D (editor) Proceedings of a Seed Orchard Conference, Umeå, Sweden, 26-28 September 2007. pp 142-154.

Lindgren D. 2008. Seed orchard conference. Mangfold Issued by Nordgen. June 2008

Lindgren D and Prescher F 2008 Bättre fröplantager för Sveriges framtid. Skogfakta 2-2008.

Moriguchi Y, Prescher F & Lindgren D 2008.  Optimum lifetime for Swedish Picea abies seed orchards. New Forests 35:147-157.

Nicodemus A, Varghese M, Nagarajan B and Lindgren D 2008.  Fertility Variation across Years in Two Clonal Seed Orchards of Teak and its Impact on Seed Crop. Proceedings of a Seed Orchard Conference, Umeå, Sweden, 26-28 September 2007:189-194

Prescher F, Lindgren D & Karlsson B 2008. Genetic Thinning of Clonal Seed Orchards using Linear deployment may improve both gain and diversity. Forest Ecology and Management 254: 188-192.

Varghese, M., R. Kamalakannan., A. Nicodemus., and D. Lindgren. 2008. Fertility variation and its impact on seed crops in seed production areas in a natural stand of teak in southern India. Euphytica 160: 131-141.

Lindgren D, Danusevičius D & Rosvall O 2009. Unequal deployment of clones to seed orchards by considering genetic gain, relatedness and gene diversity. Forestry 82:17-28.

Kroon J, Wennström U, Prescher F, Lindgren D and Mullin TJ 2009. Estimation of clonal variation in seed cone production over time in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seed orchard Silvae Genetica:  58(1-2):53-62

Nicodemus A, Varghese M, Nagarajan B and Lindgren D 2009.  Annual Fertility Variation in Clonal Seed Orchards of Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) and its Impact on Seed Crop.  Silvae Genetica in press.

Lindgren D 2008. Targets in Swedish Tree Improvement of Scots pine and Norway spruce. Adaptive Traits Needed for Breeding Zones Delineation  Madrid 25th - 26th February 2008 Abstract and slideshow.

Lindgren D 2008.  Modelling the performance over a range of sites using genetic flexibility (plasticity).  Plasticity Adaptation in Forest Trees Madrid (Spain), 27th - 29th February 2008. Abstract and slideshow.

Lindgren D, Danusevičius D, Högberg K-A, Weng Y & Hallingbäck HR. 2010.  Relatives in seed orchards and clone mixtures.   International Forestry Review 12(5) page 322

Lindgren D, Westin J & Prescher F 2010.  Seed orchards in a warm future. International Forestry Review 12(5) page 5 

Wang X-R, Torimaru T, Lindgren D. & Fries A. 2010. Marker-based parentage analysis facilitates low input “breeding without breeding” strategies for forest trees.  Tree Genetics and Genomes 6:227-235


Shimono A, Wang X-R, Torimaru T, Lindgren D & Karlsson B 2011.. Spatial variation in local pollen flow and mating success in a Picea abies clonal archive and implication for a novel “breeding without breeding” strategy. Tree Genetics & Genomes:7(3) 499-509

Rosvall, O. & Lindgren, D. 2012. Inbreeding depression in seedling seed orchards. Arbetsrapport nr 761, Skogforsk, 12 s

Torimaru T, Wennström U, Lindgren D & Wang X-R. 2012. Effects of male fecundity, interindividual distance and anisotropic pollen dispersal on mating success in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seed orchard. Heredity 108:312-321. 

Jan Kowalczyk and  Dag Lindgren  2012  Seedling Seed Orchards in Poland prolonged abstract in prelimary proceedings presented at conference in Kemer Turkey May 2012

I contributed to two presentations at the conference May 2012 in Turkey, which are linked here at the moment
Introduction to seed orchards by Dag Lindgren and with Jan Kowalczyk (a draft version)
Draft chapter to forestry book about seed orchards

Last edit June 2012