Seed orchard “Dag Lindgren” at Brån
This page focuses on a seed orchard established named “T10DagLindgren”. Note that this description is mainly in English (or “Swenglish”) to offer foreigners and scientists insight into some Swedish seed orchard details. For this new seed orchard it will be a particular deep insight. Swedes are able to read English, but many of the links are to Swedish documents. As it is conveniently situated for excursions from Umeå I hope that in future it could be an excursion goal for those interested in seed orchards. Since autumn 2017 it updates an earlier homepage at another web http://www.allt2.se/Lindgren/BranVannfors/Bran.pdf .
Preparations for establishment. The land was cleared already 2005, the first effort to establish a seed orchard failed. Earlier it was an old seed orchard on the ground and the stumps of the old trees have been removed (including grinding roots and stumps).
Selection of genotypes to graft and graft collection was done during 2011. Grafts were placed on rootstocks (“top grafting”) at Sävar. The potted grafts were propagated in the nursery at Sävar.
Figure. Grafts for the seed orchard cultivated at Sävar midsummer 2012
The grafts was tagged with clone number and a glass ampulla with an identification chip was placed in the pot. http://www.skogforsk.se/kunskap/kunskapsbanken/2015/rfid-underlattar-identifiering-av-plantagekloner/. Several large trucks transported the potted grafts, which arrived to the orchard clone-wise shortly before planting.
The seed orchard was planted the last weeks of September 2013 with two year old grafts. Planting was done clone by clone according to a premade map. Planting was done and netcages was put around the grafts as protection against rodents at end of September. The grafts originated from Sävar. There were 84 clones with 2459 ramets (grafts). Excess grafts were moved from Sävar to the orchard site, some of them was given away at inauguration and grow now in some gardens. No moose fence was erected, probably the moose pressure is limited so close to houses as this seed orchard is. No moose injuries has been observed 2007.
Map of the seed orchard with the clonal identity of each graft is at two sheets to make it possible to print out http://daglindgren.upsc.se/HonClone/MapSouthernPart.PNG and http://daglindgren.upsc.se/HonClone/MapNorthernPart.PNG
The seed orchard has at establishment a target area. The zone is called T10 (T for “Tall”=pine, and 10 for geographic target area). T10 is the area coloured in light blue in the figure to the left. The actual use may, however, be slightly different from the target area planned at establishment. The geographic areas are more for dimensioning than for exact delineation of actual use. Global warming is likely to have an effect on the target area moving it northwards and upwards. The seed orchard “Västerhus”, where scientific work is going on, also serves area T10. Västerhus has been in the focus of scientists for the last decade, and is now a major seed source for the zone. Västerhus is currently the genetically best and most advanced Scots pine seed orchard in full production.
Ownership and contact: The seed orchard is owned and managed by Svenska Skogsplantor and not shared by other owners. Skogsplantor seed supply is a unit currently headed by Finnvid Prescher. Seed orchards in the north including Brån and the new seed orchard are managed by Joakim Fjällström, Umeå, 090-380 36; 070-268 92 85 firstname.lastname@example.org.
Some of the clones in the seed orchard are dedicated to persons. Those have generally scientifically contributed to better seed orchards, sometimes mainly be improving tree breeding. Almost all have PhD. Dedications started August 2017 in connection with a seed orchard conference http://seedorchard2017.upsc.se/ . The selection was on subjective and rather complicated grounds. It has been discussed with the organization committee of the conference. The dedications and information about the orchard and clones including a map with the clonal identity of each graft is at http://daglindgren.upsc.se/HonClone/HonorListDagLindgren.xlsx
About Swedish seed orchards. Many entries to seed orchards in general and in Sveden can be found here. ___The Swedish seed orchard program was described among others by Lindgren m fl 2008. “The third batch of Seed Orchards” (TreO=“Tredje omgången”). The “TreO” program coordinated by Skogforsk considers only new or planned seed orchards affiliated to that programme, not all seed orchards. Swedish seed orchards are established without any governmental support. The owners are varies, but the owner of this Scots pine seed orchard at Brån (Svenska Skogsplantor) is the most important seed orchard owner and operator in Sweden.
Links, more general about seed orchards
· General about seed orchards (Lindgren SLU-länk)
Specific for T10Dag Lindgren
· Slide show about seed orchard optimization (Mullin et al)
· Outdated History__
· Invigning september 30 2013_(another blogg)__
· Västerhus - a seed orchard connected to Brån__
· Svenska skogsplantor (Plantageägaren)
· An excursion including Vännfors – a genetic demonstration trial with pine near to the seed orchard.__
The mature Brån pine seed orchard. There is an old seed orchard adjacent to the new, but it is not in use any more. Part of old Brån still exists 2017, but was not harvested or managed the last years. Old seed orchards, like the old Brån, become genetically outdated, but may still serve a function. They function as back-ups if harvest of genetically better seed orchards does not full-fill expectations. Harvest in genetically outdated seed orchards can be concentrated to the tested genetically best clones. The harvested seeds can be used for seeding in the forest, where seed demand per area is much higher, but the success rate by physiologically superior seed orchard seeds much better. Mature grafts can improve genetic quality of the pollen pollinating young grafts and thus improve the genetic quality of the first harvests of a new adjacent seed orchard. But no of these reasons explains the existence of old Brån, it is just a rather unproductive storage of ground till (in maybe a decade) further seed orchards will be required. A reason to remove it maybe that moose can hide where or (in a decade) the pollen will degrade the genetic quality of the new seed orchard.
Three seed orchard batches Comparison can now be done with the old “first batch seed orchard” at Brån and the new third batch seed orchard. Västerhus is one of the most modern seed producing orchards belonging to second batch seed orchards, and the new seed orchard can be considered the most modern third batch seed orchard. Västerhus is the seed orchard which has been the most important target for research since 2006.
How to come where. It is 26 kms from Umeå central railway station = 30 mins): Go E12 west towards Vännäs. Pass the bridge over Vindelälven. Some hundred m after the bridge turn left (south) to Vännäsby (”Umevägen”). Följ denna 600 m, vik åt vänster Brånvägen (mot Överboda). Följ den 500 m över Ume älv. Efter bron tag första vägen åt höger (”Skattåkersvägen”). Efter 500 m Brånplantagen till vänster. Det går också att ta andra avtagsvägen från Brånvägen åt höger (”Brännavägen”), då kommer plantagen till höger efter en stund. Plantagen ligger alltså mellan Brännavägen och Skattåkersvägen. Det går att köra genom den nya plantagen mellan dessa båda vägar. Den nya plantagen ligger väster om den gamla Brån-plantagen, som delvis finns kvar och syns. Från avfarten från E12 mot Vindeln längs Vindelälven är det 2 km SV till den nya fröplantagen. 2013 noterades att buss har stopp på Brånvägen 500 m från plantagen, busshållplats ”Skattevägen” Länstrafiken 15. Även buss 55 trafikerar Brån.
Det finns en “arbetsväg” syd-norr genom plantagen. Den är lerig och gropig och kan vara besvärlig för personbil vid vått väglag, men det går bra om det är torrt. Det går att köra mellan plantagehalvorna både från norr och söder. Det finns gamla tallympar norr och väster om nya plantagen, så plantagen var nog större en gång i tiden. Det kan noteras att de omgivande markägarna tydligen tycker de gamla ymparna är vackra nog som ”parkträd” att bevara.
At the dinner following Finnvids Prescher's dissertation 07-09-28 a dedication of a new planned seed orchard at Brån was done to Dag Lindgren. The occasion of the dedication is shown on the picture to the left. At that time only the location of the current seed orchard was known. It took some time to get it in the soil but the bright side of the coin is that it became a better seed orchard.
Will the name of the orchard remain “Dag Lindgren”?
The owner did baptize the orchard to “T10 Dag Lindgren”. Is the name of the seed orchard really “Dag Lindgren”? Perhaps it cannot be seen in that way, a seed orchard has no single official name, until the seeds are approved for marketing. When it appears in the official list (called “rikslängden”; ett “handelsregister”; “National list of basic material”) managed by the forest authority (Skogsstyrelsen). Brån (FP-18) is on the current official list. Usually orchards are “named” by geographic designation, but there are sometimes several orchards on the same spot. But “Dag Lindgren” is a designation and works as work name and will be found in “unofficial” registers the coming decade. “Dag Lindgren” is a “dedication” like clones in Västerhus have, which can serve as work name till the official registration, which is needed for marketing the seeds, when it is up to the owner at that moment probably a decade ahead to decide. I think it is not directly undeserved because the seed orchard represents collectively developed ideas, where I have been an important part. But there are many others deserving it as much.
Design of clones and grafts.
The clones are a mixture of selections among founders and their offspring. The list of clones selected and propagated for the seed orchard includes 86 clones, but only 84 were planted. There were 2459 grafts planted. The number of grafts planned for each clone was optimised, but there are some losses and other limitations. Before setting up the actual orchard the optimizing program was run once more. Of the clones in the orchard, 11 are “selection backwards” (“founders”). Thus genotypes selected as phenotypes in a forest once upon a time. Four of these are “old plus trees” selected before 1978 as mature trees in natural forest. Three of these grow at Västerhus. Seven are plus trees selected after 1980 in some decade old plantations. Their progenies were tested in field-experiments and based on that, genotypes found to be genetically superior were selected. One third (33%) of the grafts in the seed orchard are such first generation plus trees. All 73 selections in offspring have known father and mother, which were selected and tested plus trees. Some of these parents grow at Västerhus.
Dedication of clones to Västerhus and how these dedications roll on to “Dag Lindgren”
Two clones in the planned New Brån are offspring of a clone in Västerhus (Y4508) dedicated to Nebi Bilir: 11-067 (Y4508xY4500), where the dedicated clone is mother) and 86-398 (Y4501xY4508, where the dedicated clone is father). Nebi’s son, Yusuf Bilir, keeps grafts of these two clones, which have the clone dedicated to his father as one of their parents. (Photo midsummer 2012). The Figure demonstrates that trees are like humans, generations follow each other.
There are more who will get their dedicated genes transmitted to “Dag Lindgren”. Three clones in Västerhus grow also in “Dag Lindgren” and will thus get their life as clones prolonged some decades and contribute more to future forests. Those lucky are: Run Peng Wei, Seppo Ruotsalainen and Gösta Eriksson. Their dedicated clones were also used in a seed orchard established 2012 by Holmen, “Öden”. Those who will get offspring from their dedicated clones in “Dag Lindgren” and thus get grandchildren of their dedicated clones in the seed crop are: Seppo Ruotsalainen, Gösta Eriksson, Shen Xi-Huan, Urban Eriksson, Nebi Bilir, Anders Fries, Xiao Ru Wang and Yoshinari Morugushi.
Runpeng Wei, who is the only foreigner dedicated a clone in this orchard, visited the seed orchard 150814, here is a picture from the visit.
Another new seed orchard serving the same area
There is another new seed orchard meant to serve the same area (T10). It is owned by Holmen and established 2012, a year before ”Dag Lindgren”. It is Öden, Grundsunda, ca 7 km norr Husum, E4 actually go through the seed orchard!, 72 kms south Umeå, well visible from road. A stop can be made without much delay or trouble). At least 8.400 grafts. “Dag Lindgren” and Öden have eight clones in common (selection backwards). The picture to the left is from 2014. Öden was made with only selection backwards (old established clones) and is thus genetically less advanced, and the estimated breeding value of the crop will be (very slightly) lower.
Swedish attention to seed orchards (bred material)
Generally the current situation seems good. The current seed orchard establishment programme (TreO) will be brought to a successful end sooner than earlier expected and seed orchard establishment is likely to continue beyond that. The request for planting seed orchard material is often larger than what could be supplied. Current harvest from forest sustain a vital industry and hope is that forest growth and harvest will improve the carbon dioxide situation. The major owners of seed orchards seem rather stable. There is not much opposition against seed orchards for “environmental” reasons. The opposition is rather against plantation forestry; clear-cut, choice of species; possible GMO and clonal forestry. But on the other hand the focus on seed orchards in e.g. Skogforsk web or SLU web or the forest media is very much less than corresponds to the practical importance of seed orchards.
TREO progress: Planting of TREO was ready 2017. Arealmässigt så omfattar TreO för gran på totalt 342 (200-270) ha, för tall ligger planerna på 235 ha (160-220) och för Contorta planeras 54 ha. Arbetet med TREO är därmed på sluttampen.
Touristic in neighbourhood
Fågelreservat kan nås sydåt från plantagen “Kallbäcksvägen” med parkeringsplats ”Kallmyrkläppen” i hörnet av reservatet. Verkar dock långt att gå runt Brånsjön. There is a pizzeria on the opposite side of Ume älv at Umevägen 176.